Post Office Horizon IT – for Julian Wilson time ran out on justice

By Tony Collins

Julian Wilson was a subpostmaster, one of the founding members of Justice for Subpostmasters Alliance.

He and his wife Karen had their lives turned upside down after the Post Office’s centrally-run Horizon system, which was installed at the local branch they ran, showed unexplained losses.

He was one of more than 150 subpostmasters across the country whom the Post Office has blamed for losses shown on Horizon.

Subpostmasters run smaller post offices under a contract issued by the Post Office. Under their contracts, subpostmasters are personally responsible for deficits at their branches.

MPs and TV documentaries have raised concerns about whether the Post Office has accused subpostmasters of criminal actions when technical faults might have caused the losses.

The concerns of MPs were reinforced by the findings of forensic accountants Second Sight. At the request of MPs, the Post Office brought in Second Sight to investigate each of the subpostmaster complaints.

The Post Office criticised Second Sight’s findings and said there was no evidence that faults with the computer system caused money to go missing. “There is evidence that user actions, including dishonest conduct, were responsible for missing money,” said the Post Office.

Julian Wilson

TV investigative reporter Nick Wallis, who has reported on the Post Office Horizon IT system for the BBC’s The One Show, and has followed the story for many years, has written a moving post on the death of Julian Wilson who fought for justice for as long as he was able.

On his blog, Wallis says of Julian, “He was, I suppose, what we journalists call a contact.

“But his gentle manner, generous spirit and calm good humour made me think of him as more than that.”

Julian was prosecuted by the Post Office for false accounting. He pleaded guilty and went to his grave a near-bankrupt convicted criminal, says Wallis.

When Julian died, his conviction was one of 20 subpostmaster cases being considered by the Criminal Cases Review Commission.

Technical fault or crime?

More than 11,000 post offices have used Fujitsu’s £1bn Horizon system for branch accounting and rarely have had problems. At the close of each day, the system has balanced money coming in from customers and money going out.

If the system showed a shortfall, subpostmasters had few options: make up the deficit out of their own money, sign off the accounts as correct, or refuse to sign off – which might have meant closing the post office (and upsetting customers) while a financial audit took place.

The Post Office prosecuted subpostmasters who signed off the accounts as correct knowing there were unexplained losses; and it prosecuted in some cases for theft.

Dozens of subpostmasters have been jailed, made bankrupt or had their lives ruined after the Post Office took action against them in the light of discrepancies shown on Horizon.


Julian Wilson was determined to clear his name.

Wallis interviewed him in December 2014 alongside his wife Karen in a village hall in Fenny Compton, where the Justice for Subpostmasters Alliance met for the first time in 2009.

“Karen stood there with tears streaming down her face as Julian explained in his measured, Hampshire burr how problems with the computer system at their Post Office in Astwood Bank had caused their lives to fall apart.”

Wallis says there was never a trace of bitterness about Julian. “He accepted things with great patience even though he was still in danger of losing his house because of the Post Office’s pursuit of him.”

Julian found out he had terminal cancer towards the end of last year. “This summer he deteriorated rapidly,” says Wallis.

One of the comments on Wallis’s blog says of Julian,

“He carried on campaigning against the Post Office until he had no strength left to fight and I made him a promise – in the last few days of his life – that I would keep going along with the JFSA [Justice for Subpostmasters Alliance] until we got our long-overdue justice.

“What an absolute tragedy that such a good man should be taken from his beloved wife Karen and wonderful daughter Emma before his name had been cleared.”

Another said,

“RIP Julian – I am so sorry that we could not let you leave this world with the vindication you will certainly, but now posthumously, receive.”


Subpostmasters represented by Justice for Subpostmasters Alliance have issued a writ against the Post Office and the legal action is well and truly underway – but Julian Wilson’s untimely death shows that not all the individuals involved in complaints against the Post Office can afford the time to wait for justice.

In some cases, complaints go back at least eight years – so far.

The Post Office’s argument all along has been, in essence, that there is, and never has been, any evidence that Horizon caused the losses.

But neither is there evidence that more than 150 subpostmasters stole the money in question.

Institutional blindness?

In a BBC Panorama documentary on complaints about Horizon, Ian Henderson, a Second Sight investigator, told reporter John Sweeney,

“Horizon works reasonably well if not very well most of the time. In any large IT system it is inevitable that problems will occur.

“What seems to have gone wrong within the Post Office is a failure to investigate properly and in detail cases where those problems occurred. It’s almost like institutional blindness.”

The Post Office denies this and maintains that it has investigated each case thoroughly.

What strikes me, though, is the insularity of the Post Office’s case.


Imagine if airlines and aircraft manufacturers were allowed to be the judge of whether pilots were to blame after major incidents.

The RAF’s hierarchy wrongly blamed two pilots for the crash of a Chinook helicopter on the Mull of Kintyre in June 1994. It took 17 years for the families of the dead pilots to win justice for their dead sons.

It was only after numerous independent inquiries, Parliamentary hearings and leaks of a mass of material about problems with the helicopter’s computer systems that the RAF’s finding of gross negligence against the two pilots was quashed.

The case showed that, despite the sincerely-held beliefs of two air marshals that the pilots were, without any doubt, at fault, the RAF was eventually found to have failed to take sufficient account of the possibility of a technical malfunction, or a chain of events involving a technical malfunction.

The restoration of the pilots’ reputation came about not because the RAF’s hierarchy changed its mind about the pilots’ gross negligence, but because there was a change of government in 2010 and setting aside the finding against the pilots was the will of Parliament.

The then Coalition government decided that a technical cause of the crash could not be ruled out.

Of course there was no air crash in the case of the subpostmasters. But there was a similarity: the RAF and Post Office are State institutions that dismissed complaints about their equipment and blamed the system “users”, with devastating consequences for the reputations and lives of the families involved.

There is also a fundamental difference: a regulatory authority always undertakes investigations into air crashes.

Airlines and aircraft manufacturers are not the legal investigating authority. In the UK it is the Air Accidents Investigation Branch. In its investigations into possible equipment failings, the AAIB has powers set out in law [including the Civil Aviation (Investigation of Air Accidents and Incidents) Regulations 1996] to require information from airlines and manufacturers.

In the case of the subpostmasters, the Post Office was the owner of the computer equipment that showed the losses; it was responsible for investigations into that equipment; and it was the prosecuting authority.

Contradictory evidence

There have been numerous commercial air crashes where regulatory investigating authorities have uncovered evidence that contradicted evidence from the airlines or manufacturers.

Sometimes it took regulatory authorities several years to discover the truth. Eventually they found technical faults where manufacturers had said initially there were none.

In the case of the Post Office Horizon controversy, there are no regulatory investigating authorities.

When accused subpostmasters have blamed the system for the losses, they have been unable to rely on an Air Accident Investigation Branch to produce a final report that could not be contested by the airline or manufacturers.

The Post Office could argue (rightly) that it operates under completely different laws, rules and regulations to the legal and regulatory framework that governs investigations of air crashes. In the Post Office cases, no public safety is involved.

But the Post Office has had a succession of serious incidents: the lives of 150 or more subpostmasters and in many cases their spouses have been thrown into turmoil.

Is this not a succession of serious incidents in which none has been the subject of an inquiry backed by a regulatory authority?

It’s a credit to the tenacity of Justice for Subpostmasters Alliance that legal proceedings have been issued. But the wheels of justice turn slowly. With appeals, the case could drag on for years.

More uncertainty and suffering for the families involved?

It’s also obvious that the Post Office has deeper pockets than those of individual subpostmasters.

That’s one reason why, after serious air incidents, the independent investigating authorities have complete control over their inquiries. Air accident investigators recognise that lawyers for airlines and manufacturers may seek to defend their organisations after a serious incident.

Sometimes air accident investigators will conduct parts of their investigations without relying on evidence from the manufacturers.

In the case of the accusations against subpostmasters, what powerful independent organisation exists to challenge the evidence of the Post Office?

The Post Office was able to commission Second Sight and later to discontinue its contract. The Post Office was also able to issue a point-by-point denial of Second Sight’s findings.

Imagine an airline or aircraft manufacturers being able to order independent investigators to discontinue their inquiries after a succession of serious incidents?

The Post Office said in response to Second Sight’s reports that it was “unable to endorse” the findings. After serious air incidents it would not matter if the airline or manufacturers disputed the report of regulatory authorities. The regulator’s report would stand.


The Post Office has a duty to prosecute subpostmasters who steal. But could it also do more to recognise that the imbalance of power and resources puts subpostmasters who have gained nothing – and lost much as a result of losses shown the system – at a severe disadvantage?

As the prosecuting authority, and the investigating authority, the Post Office is not open to serious challenge except through the courts where it has the money and resources to sustain costly and protracted battles.

Is this fair? Is this just?

The Post Office has every legal right to carry on exactly as it is, but could it not instead consider the cases on the basis of “benefit of doubt?”

In other words concede that there is doubt over whether subpostmasters had criminal intent?

Taking into account ordinary fairness and magnanimity in the face of its extraordinary power, the Post Office could settle the cases now, and not put the families of so many subpostmasters through any more suffering.

Nick Wallis’ post on Julian Wilson

Post Office faces group litigation over Horizon IT as subpostmasters fund class action

Justice for Subpostmasters Alliance

Jailed and bankrupt because of “unfit” Post Office IT? What now?

Communication Workers Union warns subpostmasters of flaw in Post Office Horizon accounting system

Horizon not fit for purpose at some branches?

Labelled as criminals – Telegraph

4 responses to “Post Office Horizon IT – for Julian Wilson time ran out on justice

  1. Nicholas Bilaczenko
    10 Giles Street East.
    Coobowie SA 5583
    Ph no: 08 88528336

    Dear sir/madam
    1 I request please for my submission be posted on the case studies list.
    2 I am a self-made expert on Flawed Internet Computer Technology having gathered more than 3,500+ screen snapshots of bad corrupt financial transactions and have produced more than 40+ CD videos.My research began in 2006 for where stems the cause of Flawed Internet Technology, taking 7 of 10 years of daily research of more than 40,000+ hours to discover, and explain in terms that any layperson can understand.
    3 2 or more financial instructions are sent over millions of miles of copper line telecommunications infrastructure as electronic data that is reprocessed at a computer database. Inevitably with millions of financial transactions occurring each day 2 or more financial instructions simultaneously enter a computer chipset, both electronic instructions are erroneously processed at the same time when only 1 electronic instructions should be processed.
    4 As a result computer chipset algorithms [programming] become corrupt, a corrupt pathway is created for all further electronic instructions to follow for processing. Bad, corrupt financial transactions of financial detriment occur.
    5 It is an indisputable fact acknowledged by all PC manufacturers, Microsoft Operating systems, and well-versed computer users that corrupt pathways are an inherent flaw with internet streaming technology. The remedy provided is to reboot [a computer term for turning off and then restarting a PC] resetting the allgorithms[programming] back to default processing settings.
    6 Dial-up internet was 1st used in 1998/2000 for financial transactions, in 2006 Dial-up became obsolete and was replaced by the broadband internet. Broadband Internet technology could process 10 times the number of financial transactions than dial-up in the same amount of time. Broadband technology with a hardware upgrades up to 100 times.
    7 The Financial markets, banks, in general, the financial sector has always been unregulated or self-regulated until 2010[Aust] creating an avenue for experimental internet technology, Dial-up and broadband technology to be imposed on the nations general public. It has never been properly or adequately trialed and tested, like all experiments the systems are finely tuned from complaints.Unfortunately the inherent flawed with internet technology is that it can never be fixed.
    8 The purpose of Dial-Up and Broadband technology was in part to increase the financial sectors commission fees, Dial-up is antiquated obsolete technology that should have been abandoned when superseded in 2006 by broadband. Profits in the financial sector [Banks and nations financial markets] are increased by retaining free Dial-up internet instead of not having to outlay the expense of paying monthly broadband rents.
    9 2 different internet technologies dial-up and broadband of incompatible bandwidth frequencies, audio and electric pulse running together within the same computer systems.
    10 In my opinion the sub-postmasters and mistresses deficits in accounting records prior to 2006 is a result of erroneous filter parameters, that is unforeseen linear and non-linear [logic and non logic] calculations that were never entered into algorithms [programming]Broadband was implemented in 2006 the same number of computer servers in place to service Dial-up now used for broadband only now broadband is processing up to 100 times the number of financial transactions.
    11 Since 2006 the reported number by global media of computer malfunctions in the financial sector has exponentially increased. Similarly, new records set by the value of the financial errors involved, in 2016 a $618 billion dollar trading error in Japan.
    12 One of the numerous types of malfunctions are unauthorized access is given to unsuspecting account holders, JPMorgan reported 76 million account holders and 7 million businesses security breach has been compromised, Knight Capital $450 million loss, Facebook IPO disaster and other examples.
    13 Flawed Internet Computer technology is not only used by all global stock exchanges, stockbrokers, hedge funds etc but the same identical flawed technology is used by all Bank EFTPOS, aviation flight centers, national shipping, our nation’s defense forces and other commercial applications including Fujitsu, flawed Horizon internet systems.
    14 27 May 2017 British Airways has left 75,000 passengers stranded around the world as a result of IT glitch that regularly occurs with all major airlines.
    15 What has occurred with Sub-postmasters and mistresses wrongful convictions, the result of Fujitsu’s Flawed Horizon Internet Systems is part of a global financial sector based on flawed internet computer technology?.
    End Part 1 of 2 Parts


  2. Jo Hamilton

    Thank you Tony for a brilliant article.
    It tells it exactly how it is and maybe will help people understand how we came to find ourselves in the desperate situation we did.
    We, members of the JFSA, are now like a big family . We comfort each other and give each other the strength to keep going!!!
    Sadly my dear friend Julian has not made it to see justice done !!! In spite of years of campaigning he was too poorly to carry on.
    The fight continues without him and the rest of us remain in it for as long as it takes!!! We will NEVER give up the fight for JUSTICE!!!
    Thanks again


    • Thank you Jo. Pointing out the things that were obvious to me was the least I could do. Your strength and determination, and that of those campaigning with you, is inspiring. Tony.


  3. I wake up every morning it seems thinking about the injustice of it all even though as a former subpostmaster I was not on the receiving end of any computer error although I could have been quite easily. This is a great piece that helps explain the position of the accused SPMRs. As far as I am concerned I am now confident that they will all eventually obtain the redress and compensation they so richly deserve but Julian wasn’t just fighting for the JFSA group he was fighting to make sure this could never happen again.
    To do so we need to define what needs to be changed.
    We both refer to Post Office Ltd as the entity responsible for this situation but I think we need to be clearer. Those responsible should be held to account. As you rightly point out in your article, it is astonishing that they can act as accuser, investigator and prosecutor in cases where they are also the plaintiff and the sole possessors of the evidence required by the defence.
    Most importantly though there needs to be an independent body set up that can hold Post Office Ltd to account. The full weight of Whitehall is now being brought to bear on preventing the JFSA and others before the CCRC from achieving justice.
    As an example of the unaccountability of POL management I have spent the last 3 or 4 years trying to raise awareness of what is going on. The National Audit Office washed their hands of the matter., the National Crime Agency weren’t interested and I even got the brush off from the EU State Subsidy commission despite clear evidence of misuse of funds. Many MPs still think that the PO is owned by Royal Mail and the standard response from the dispatch box is that operational matters must be addressed by POL!
    Thanks for the article and raising the awareness again…..
    Cheers, Tim


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